Stories in Stone at the Sun temple of Modhera | A guide on Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat

The magic took place at the crack of dawn
When the first ray of sun light hit the bejewelled stone.
The dark shrine was awash with golden light
Much to the waiting devotees' delight!

Such are the stories of the Sun temple of Modhera. Discover this and many other tales at this heritage Site in Gujarat.

Exquisitely carved deities, ingenious engineering and tales of victory and destruction – this is what you can expect when you visit Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat. In one corner, you will find yourself bewitched by the myriad expressions of perfectly sculpted dancers. Another nook will get you to marvel the skilled precision and science involved in constructing this 11th-century Gujarat Sun temple. It is one enchanting destination that instead of extinguishing my thirst with a visit, ended up fueling it – so much that I will attempt another day trip from Ahmedabad to visit this Surya Mandir Modhera again.

The Sun Temple of Modhera - one of the most artistic temples in Gujarat
The Sun Temple of Modhera – one of the most artistic temples in Gujarat

The Sun Temple Gujarat had me so captivated that I was actually chased out by the security guard when the place closed. Each stone here whispered a tale – some of them quite obvious, some had to be explained. Through this Modhera Sun Temple guide, I will attempt to share all those stories with you.

This mega guide includes the history of Sun temple in Modhera, details on its magnificent architecture as well as helpful tips and information on how you can plan your visit. In many ways, this post is going to be your virtual tour of Sun temple of Gujarat.

History of the Sun Temple of Modhera

Built at the same time as the famous Chola temple – Brihadeeswarar temple in the South and the Khajuraho temples in the North, this Sun temple Gujarat is considered a contemporary of the two. It is one of the oldest Sun temples in India – even older than the famous UNESCO World Heritage Site – Konark Sun temple in Puri, which was built in the 13th century. While these might be the verifiable facts of the built structure. The actual history of this temple goes back to the age of Ramayana – when the Ram Kund was established.

Ram Kund - now called Surya Kund - the oldest part of Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat
Ram Kund – now called Surya Kund – the oldest part of Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat

Two of the ancient scriptures – the Skanda Purana and Brahma Purana mention Modhera as a village that was established in the Dharmaranya forest. It is believed that when Lord Rama was returning back from Lanka, he was advised to perform a yagna. This was to be done in the forest of righteousness, then called Dharmaranya – mainly to absolve himself from the sin of killing a Brahmin (Ravana). Thus, came the existence of a small village of Modha Brahmins called Modherak. As per the legend, he performed this yagna on the banks of the river Pushpavathi and that place was then, referred to as Ram Kund. (present-day Surya Kund)

Centuries later, it was King Bhima I of the Solanki dynasty (Chaulukya clan) who began building the present-day Modhera temple. By religion, King Bhima I was a worshipper of Lord Shiva. However, the Solanki dynasty was Suryavanshis – basically worshippers of Sun (Surya). Hence, the King built the Modhera temple in honor of the Sun God. The temple is traced back to the period 1026 – 27 CE when King Bhima I ruled from Patan.

The controversy of dates in the Modhera Sun Temple History

A defaced image - a result of the destruction of the Sun Temple Modhera by Allaudin Khilji
A defaced image – a result of the destruction of the Sun Temple Modhera by Allaudin Khilji

There is one date that is found inscribed on the western wall of the inner shrine of Modhera Surya Mandir. The inscription is in Devnagiri and is upside down. It reads “Vikram Samvat 1083” – which essentially is the date in the Vikrami calendar followed in those times by the Indian kings. This date when converted to the Gregorian calendar is 1026 CE. Historians believe that this might be the date of destruction rather than the construction of this Gujarat Sun temple. This is largely owing to the manner in which the date has been inscribed.

Some of the destroyed idols kept along the wall of the Gujarat Sun Temple
Some of the destroyed idols kept along the wall of the Gujarat Sun Temple

Popular belief is that this date may refer to the unsuccessful thwarting of the attack on this temple by the plunderer – Mahmud Ghazni. After a year of this incident, King Bhima I came back to power and began to reconstruct the temple. Sadly, the fully constructed Modhera Surya Mandir was razed to ruins again – this time by Allauddin Khilji in the early 1300s. This is when the main idol of Sun God went missing – either taken away by Khilji and his men or saved by the local Brahmins. The idol was never recovered and since then, no worship is offered in this Gujarat Sun Temple.

Rediscovery & Restoration of the Sun temple in Gujarat

The Surya Mandir Modhera was rediscovered by the British Surveyor General – Sir Monier Monier-Williams in 1802. Later, Alexander Kinloch Forbes detailed the architecture and plan of Modhera Sun Temple. Deemed a monument of national importance, it was taken over by the Archaeological Society of India.

Interesting facts about the Modhera Sun temple Gujarat

Few of the 52 pillars of the Sabha Mandapa of Modhera Surya Mandir
Few of the 52 pillars of the Sabha Mandapa of Modhera Surya Mandir

I am pretty sure that the history of the Modhera temple was a story that you enjoyed reading. Now, be prepared to sit right up. For all you know these astounding Modhera Sun Temple facts are going to push your eyebrows right into your hairline. These are definite wanderlust creators that will push you to start planning your trip.

  • The Modhera temple in Mehsana district of Gujarat is built on the Tropic of Cancer – that is 23.5o latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. The three main parts of the Sun temple of Modhera – Surya Kund, Sabha Mandapa and the Surya Mandir (Gudha mandapa) are aligned in a perfect line on this axis.
  • On the day of the Solar equinox, the first ray of light used to directly enter the Garba Griha and fall straight onto a gem stone in the crown of the Sun God. This filled the inner sanctum with golden light. Sadly, the idol of Sun God is no longer at this designated place.
  • The position of the Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat is such that during the Summer solstice, the sun is directly over the temple. Thus, you will find that the temple does not cast a shadow.
  • The Sabha mandapa has 52 intricately carved pillars – representing 52 weeks of the year.
  • The Surya Kund is home to 108 temples of varying sizes and for different deities.
  • The entire Sun Temple Gujarat has been built with an interlocking system that required no plaster or bricks.

Fascinating? Wait for more as I walk you through the actual temple.

Pillars, torans and sculpted ceilings in the Sabha Mandapa of Surya Mandir Modhera

Book a guided day trip from Ahmedabad to Modhera and Patan

The architecture of Sun Temple Modhera

A temple aligned such that the first ray of the Sun fills the entire sanctum with golden light!

This single Modhera Sun temple story is enough for you to start wondering how advanced were the ancient architects and engineers. In that day and age, they designed the perfect Sun Temple Modhera plan that had its entire layout in a single axis. And that too, without any joints.

The Modhera Sun Temple Complex in Gujarat
The Modhera Sun Temple Complex in Gujarat

Built in the Maru-Gurjara style known for its artistically carved outer walls, the Modhera sun temple complex is made of sandstone. It has three main parts

  • The Surya Kund or the temple tank.
  • The Sabha Mandapa or the hall of audience. Also, referred to as the dance hall or the ranga mandapa.
  • The Gudha Mandapa or the Surya Mandir – basically encloses the Garba griha (inner sanctum).

Let’s step into each of these – one by one!

Surya Kund of Gujarat Sun Temple

The Surya Kund with its 108 shrines at the Sun Temple Gujarat
The Surya Kund with its 108 shrines at the Sun Temple Gujarat

A rectangular step temple tank appears as a prelude to the larger Modhera Sun Temple complex. Meant for the ritualistic bath before prayers, Surya Kund is the oldest part of this temple – constructed even before the main shrine. What makes it stunning is the way the stone steps come together to form an inverted pyramid. According to our Modhera Sun Temple guide, these steps are an inverted image of the temple Shikhar (the mountain peak-like roof). The original temple shikhar is no longer visible as it was destroyed by Allaudin Khilji and this is what rendered the temple unworshipable. However, with the reflection of these steps in the water of Surya Kund, one does get a little insight into what the original might have looked like.

The inverted pyramid shape of the steps of the Surya Kund
The inverted pyramid shape of the steps of the Surya Kund

There are 108 temples present along these geometrical steps around the Surya Kund. These are dedicated to various deities. As per the Hindu belief, there are 9 planets or Graha that rule 12 different zodiacs. To avoid any misalignment of these planets, prayers have to be said 108 times (9 planets x 12 zodiacs). On the same principle, King Bhima I constructed many shrines around the Surya Kund – just so that the misalignment of planets does not affect his subjects.

The Shitala Mata Temple on the top corner of the Modhera Surya Kund
The Shitala Mata Temple on the top corner of the Modhera Surya Kund

Among these mini temples, there are 5 big ones. These include –

  • Vishnu Mandir – that is right opposite to the Sabha Mandapa of Sun temple of Modhera. It has an idol of Lord Vishnu resting on his Sheshnag
  • Ganesh Temple
  • Kalki mata temple
  • Nataraj temple – this has Lord Shiva in his dancing avatar
  • Shitaladevi temple – She is a goddess who prevents chicken pox and smallpox. She is depicted on her vehicle which is a donkey, carrying a broom and neem stems in her hands.

After the ritualistic bath in the Surya Kund, it was customary to do a pradakshina of all the 108 temples.

Kirti torans at the Surya Mandir Modhera

Kirti torans of the Sun Temple in Modhera
Kirti torans of the Sun Temple in Modhera

Two intricately carved pillars of the Surya Kund stand tall at the entrance of Sabha Mandapa. Called the Kirti Sthambh, these pillars are symbolic of the Solankis’ victorious return to power after Mahmud Ghazni. The two pillars actually had a decorative arch connecting them but sadly, the same has been destroyed. Together with the decorative pillars, the Kirti torans were supposedly the grand entrance to the Sun temple of Modhera.

There is another pair of similarly carved pillars and a missing arch alongside the Surya Kund (You can spot in one of the Surya Kund pictures above). These Kirti torans might have signified another victory of the Solanki dynasty but little is known of the same.

Sabha Mandapa of Surya Mandir Gujarat

The beautiful Rang Mandapa or the Sabha Mandapa of Modhera Sun Temple
The beautiful Rang Mandapa or the Sabha Mandapa of Modhera Sun Temple

Imagine comic strips carved in stone – minus the speech blurbs!

That is what you get when you enter the ornate Sabha Mandapa of the Modhera Sun Temple in Gujarat. The octagonal structure is open on all four sides and has 5 sets of 13 pillars – a total of 52 throughout its hallway. What is more – each of these pillars is a storybook in itself – depicting scenes from Ramayana, Mahabharat and Krishna Leela.

A scene from Mahabharat carved on one of the many pillars of the Sabha mandapa
A scene from Mahabharat carved on one of the many pillars of the Sabha mandapa
Scene from Sri Krishna's life in Modhera Sun Temple's Sabha Mandapa
Scene from Sri Krishna’s life in Modhera Sun Temple’s Sabha Mandapa

On one of them, you will see a detailed scene of Sita being kidnapped by Ravana – complete with his getaway vimana and the brave Jatayu trying to stop him. While on another one, there is a scene from Mahabharat, where Bhima shakes a tree and makes the Kauravas fall down. Next to him, Arjun attempts to pierce the fish’s eye in Draupadi’s swayamvar. On yet another, you will see the makhan chori episode from Lord Krishna’s life. The Sabha mandapa of the Sun Temple in Gujarat also, includes carvings that depict the importance of the unity of the Sun with the four key elements of nature – air, water, fire and earth.

Pillars, torans and sculpted ceilings in the Sabha Mandapa of Surya Mandir Modhera
Pillars, torans and sculpted ceilings in the Sabha Mandapa of Surya Mandir Modhera
One of the ceilings in the Sabha Mandapa of Sun Temple, Modhera
One of the ceilings in the Sabha Mandapa of Sun Temple, Modhera

The carved columns of Modhera temple Sabha Mandapa hold up unique torans. These alternate between semicircular arches and triangular ones. In between these are magnificent ceilings – each one different from the other.

The Sabha Mandapa, also termed the Rang Mandapa was largely used for public gatherings during festivals or religious ceremonies. Devotees would take a bath in the Surya Kund and do one round of the 108 temples around it before entering the Sabha Mandapa through the Kirti torans. They would then spend some time meditating or indulging in Bhajans before proceeding to the Guda Mandapa or the Surya Mandir.

Gudhamandapa of Modhera Sun temple | Surya Mandir

The entrance of the Gudha Mandapa or the Surya Mandir
The entrance of the Gudha Mandapa or the Surya Mandir

Interiors of the Gudha Mandapa

The Sun God appears on a chariot drawn by seven horses, with two lotus flowers in his hands and sports GUM BOOTS!

It is true! He is indeed carved in this fashion at various intervals on the outer facade as well as the inner walls of the Gudha Mandapa or commonly referred to as the Surya Mandir. This is the space where the magic of the first rays of the sun used to happen. With no idol within the sanctum santorum, the interiors of this Modhera Surya mandir are quite bare. You can enter the empty Garba Griha and look at the treasure pit that lies uncovered at the very place where the epic idol of Sun God was installed.

The carving of the Sun God with his gum boots inside the Guda mandapa
The carving of the Sun God with his gum boots inside the Guda mandapa

Around the empty shrine is the circumambulatory path for the devotees to perform their pradakshina. There are one or two meditation rooms in the sanctum. A few carved sculptures of the Sun God on his chariot can be seen within the Surya Mandir and yes, he is depicted with gum boots – a Persian influence to this otherwise Maru Gurjara style of architecture.

Outer facade of the Guda mandapa

The Surya Mandir of the Modhera Sun Temple Complex
The Surya Mandir of the Modhera Sun Temple Complex

Where the interiors of this Surya Mandir shrine are bare and free from distractions, the outer facade more than makes up with its carved brilliance. For a first-timer, the sheer details of sculptures might seem overwhelming but trust me, there is a method to this madness. Let’s begin with the base of the Gudha mandapa which is a plinth in the form of an inverted lotus. As per Hindu beliefs, the universe came into existence through a lotus that blooms in mud but has a brilliance of its own.

Gaj Patika panels on the Surya Mandir Gujarat
Gaj Patika panels on the Surya Mandir Gujarat

The next set of carvings, just above the base is termed the Gaj-patika. You will see elephant carvings on this entire strip that runs around the whole building. The animal carvings here signify strength and power.

Above this, is an interesting set of stories that depict a life cycle of a human. It begins with a birthing scene and ends with a carving of death where the person is taken for cremation. The set of carvings is based on the Hindu Purusharathas of Dharma (righteousness), Kama (pleasure), Artha (Riches/ Economic well-being) and Moksha (liberation) The entire strip of carvings run in an anti-clockwise manner around the Surya Mandapa.

The birthing scene - beginning of the circle of life
The birthing scene – beginning of the circle of life
Two of the Sun God Panels seen on the Gudha Mandapa of Modhera Sun Temple
Two of the Sun God Panels seen on the Gudha Mandapa of Modhera Sun Temple

Around this Surya Mandir Shrine, you will see 12 different poses of Sun God (again with Gum boots) – each representing 12 months. There is one of him with his two wives – Saaya and Sandhya on the southern side of the Gudhamandapa. All these sculptures are the larger central reliefs around the temple – almost like the hero image.

Based on vastu shastra, there are specific deity images carved in the 8 key directions. These are to balance the positive and negative images. These can be identified as follows –

Agni - the Fire God as depicted on one of the panels of Modhera Sun Temple
Agni – the Fire God as depicted on one of the panels of Modhera Sun Temple
  • North – Kubera – the lord of wealth. Recognized by his large pot belly.
  • North East – Lord Shiva in the Rudra form.
  • North West – Vayu – the lord of Wind
  • South – Yama, the God of Death
  • South East – Agni, the God of fire. The relief shows a bearded Lord with flames behind him.
  • South West – Ardhanarishwar, the half Parvati, half Shiva form
  • West – Varun, the Lord of Water
  • East – Indra – the King of Gods seen on his elephant- Airavat.

Between these bigger panels, you will find numerous other Modhera stories. One of them includes an Apsara trying to pluck a thorn out of her foot while the other has her using her wet here to quench the thirst of a bird. A few amorous and erotic scenes are also, tucked in between these carvings. You will also, find a few other deities like the divine architect of Heaven – Vishwakarma, who appears with a T scale in his hand.

Living Shiva temple in the Modhera Sun Temple complex

The Shiva Temple in the Modhera Sun Temple complex
The Shiva Temple in the Modhera Sun Temple complex

You might recollect reading this earlier in the post – Though as a clan, the Solankis were Suryavanshis (worshippers of the sun), by religion, they were Shaivites (devotees of Lord Shiva). It was not unusual to find one exclusive Shiva Mandir inside this Sun Temple complex. Located opposite to the Guda Mandapa and the Sabha Mandapa, is a small chariot-shaped temple – the only living temple in complex of the Sun temple of Modhera.

Panchlinga inside the only living temple of Modhera Surya Mandir
Panchlinga inside the only living temple of Modhera Surya Mandir

Pooja is still done in this Shiva temple and the reason for this is that while Alauddin Khilji destroyed the main Sun God idol in Modhera, he missed the Shiva Linga inside this smaller temple. The main Shiva Linga in this temple is surrounded by five smaller ones and hence, this temple is referred to as the Panchlinga Shiva temple (Panch meaning five). There was some bit of restoration done to this temple – largely the roof and some of the wall. Even today, you will see a Pujari in the temple lighting a diya in honor of Lord Shiva.

Modhera sun temple at night

Modhera Sun Temple at Night
Modhera Sun Temple at Night Image Credits: L S Prasath

Speaking of diyas, you must plan to visit Modhera Sun Temple in winter – specifically the months of December to February. Just after dusk, the temple is completely lit up with tiny orange lights – similar to the butter lamps of the past. The visual effect is just ethereal. Just this one picture, explains why.

Sadly, I missed this lighting by a month and this gives me just another reason to go back to the Sun temple of Modhera.

A note on the Modhera dance festival

If you want to experience the living heritage and culture of India, then you must plan a visit to this Sun Temple in Gujarat during the annual dance festival that happens here. The Modhera dance festival brings together the best classical and folk dancers from across India. You will be able to witness the 8 classical dances which have been practiced in India since times unknown. The lively performances are presented against the backdrop of the illuminated heritage structure.

Also called the Uttarardh Mahotsav, it is celebrated just after the famous Kite festival of Gujarat in January. The term Uttarardh refers to the change in the direction of Sun as we move from winter to summer. During this time, the sun is positioned toward the Northern hemisphere. Modhera dance festival is celebrated over three days.

Modhera Surya Mandir as seen from the Sabha Mandapa
Modhera Surya Mandir as seen from the Sabha Mandapa

Well, that concludes my tour of the Sun temple of Modhera. Now I am sure you know why I want to revisit it again. The sheer number of stories embedded in this Gujarat Sun temple cannot be deciphered in a few hours. Fingers crossed, I get another chance to get here. Till then, here are some more tips to plan your own trip.

Common FAQs about the Sun temple in Modhera

Where is the Gujarat Sun Temple?

The Sun temple in Gujarat is located in Modhera Village which falls in the Mehsana district of Gujarat. It is around 100 km from Ahmedabad city.

How do I get to Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat?

Here are the best ways to get to Sun Temple in Modhera.

By Air
Mehsana and Modhera do not have an airport of their own. The closest airport would be the Ahmedabad international airport, which is around 100 km from Modhera. The airport has a very good connectivity – both in terms of domestic as well as international flights. Once you land in Ahmedabad, you can get to Modhera either by road or rail.

By Rail
Mehsana is the closest railway station. It is approximately 30 km from Modhera Sun Temple. You can get off here and hire one of the local cabs or board the regular public buses to get to the Sun Temple.

By Road
This is by far the most convenient. There are excellent roads to Modhera from Ahmedabad and other major cities of Gujarat. You can either hire a car or get one of the many public buses to Modhera.

Which are the other places to visit near the Sun Temple of Modhera?

Some of the places that you can visit near the Modhera Sun Temple include –

Patan – The town is around 30 km from Modhera and has another UNESCO World heritage site – Rani ki Vav. In addition to that, you can also, stop by the famous Patan Patola heritage museum to see one of the most expensive heritage fabrics being woven and hear the story behind it.

Vadhnagar – Erstwhile home of PM Narendra Modi, this tiny town is home to exquisitely carved Kirti torans as well as the beautiful and ancient Hatkeshwar Mandir. This is around 60 km from the Sun temple

Siddhpur – Around 60 km from Modhera, here you can visit the extravagant Havelis of Dawoodi Bohras. It is also, famous for Bindu Sarovar (a lake mentioned in Rig Vedas) and the ruins of Rudra Mahalaya temple. There are a few more interesting attractions in this town.

Which is the best time to visit Modhera Sun Temple?

In terms of the season, I highly recommend visiting the Modhera temple in winter, when the temperatures are not so high. This would be from October to February. Summers are brutal and if you must, make sure you plan to visit either early in the morning or in the 2nd half of the day.

I would highly recommend visiting in the 2nd half of the day, so that you not only get to see the temple in daylight but also, get a chance to see the incredible lighting in the evening. However, note that the lighting is done only in the months of December to February.

It would be great to time this with the annual Modhera Dance festival that takes place in January.

What are the Modhera Sun Temple timings?

Modhera Sun Temple is open from 7 am to 6 pm on all days.

What is the Modhera Sun Temple entry fee?

Modhera Sun Temple entrance fees are INR 25 for Indians and INR 300 for foreign nationals. There are no charges for photography here. You can choose to hire a guide at the ticketing counter at a fixed price of INR 300.

Where can you stay in Modhera?

There is a limited choice of hotels in Mehsana for your Modhera stay. Instead, one can book an Ahmedabad hotel and travel to Modhera as a day trip. Ahmedabad has tons of options – from uber luxury hotels to budget stays. You can look up this article for the best area to book your Ahmedabad stay. The booking resources section below has links to help you book your hotel online.

Can you do a day trip from Ahmedabad to Modhera?

Yes, you can do a day trip from Ahmedabad to Modhera and it is highly recommended. If planned properly, you can even include other places likes Patan, Vadhnagar or Siddhpur on this trip.

Travel and Photography tips

  • There are proper restrooms and cafes available at the Modhera Sun Temple complex.
  • I highly recommend hiring a guide to take you through the temple. You can hire one at the ticketing counter of Sun temple of Modhera for INR 300.
  • Tripods are not allowed in the complex. Carry a wide-angle lens along with your regular kit lens to capture the architecture here.
  • The best time for photography would be early morning or late evening.

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7 thoughts on “Stories in Stone at the Sun temple of Modhera | A guide on Modhera Sun Temple Gujarat”

  1. It’s amazing how our ancestors knew so much about the sun and the rotation of the world around it. It’s fascinating how the temple has been built exactly on the tropic of the Cancer, and how the sun aligns perfectly over the temple, and how on the solar equinox the first ray of light falls straight onto a gem in that crown. Incredible! It reminds me of my trip to Abu Simbel in Egypt, which was created in a similar way – on the birthday of the pharaoh the sun illuminates all statues in the deepest chamber of the temple.

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  2. The Modhera Sun Temple in Gujarat is such an amazing, delicate temple to visit. I love the 52 artfully carved pillars, representing the 52 weeks of the year. It must be special to wander between them. Interesting to read the story behind the temple. I would make sure to time a visit with the winter light-up as it really looks spectacular.

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  3. It’s hard to imagine just how impressive this site really is until you are there in person. The scale and details are simply incredible. I love the nods to our history and astronomy- the sun and its rotation, 52 pillars for the number of weeks, built on the tropic of the Cancer, and the solar equinox ray of light falls onto a gem in that crown. How fascinating and remarkable it all is. This needs to be on everyone’s bucket list!

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  4. I love the idea of a perfect blend of artistry and engineering that we would find on a visit to the Sun Temple of Modhera. I can understand why you had to be chased out when it was time for closing. The walls tell so many stories. I would want to try to visit on the day of the Solar equinox and view the sun lighting the crown of the Sun God. That would be a magical sight. I understand why this site might need more than one visit.

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  5. I love that you were so enthralled by Sun Temple Gujarat that time passed so quickly. That says a lot about it! It seems like such a great place to spend time and reflect.

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  6. During my visits to India, I have not yet had the opportunity to see the stunning Sun Temple of Modhera. But they are on my list. I have seen the Khajuraho temples you mentioned. These stone buildings of Modhera are enchanting. They are works of art and architecture. The controversy over the date of their construction is fascinating. You provide so many exciting facts about this place. It is so inspirational and educative. It is so compelling that on the day of the solar equinox, the first ray of light entered directly into the Garba Griha and fell directly on a gemstone in the crown of the Sun God. I hope to visit this place one day, as I would love to back to India.

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  7. What stands out in Modhera for me is the beautiful architecture of the temples. The Sun Temple certainly is one I would love to visit as history has always fascinated me. The Dance Festival would be another top draw for me. Thanks for this interesting & informative post Ami.

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